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Internal Politics


Political System

The Slovak Republic came into existence on January 1, 1993 as one of the successor states of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. The Slovak Republic is a parliamentary democracy with autonomous legislative, executive and judicial branches. The Constitution guarantees every citizen equality before the law without regard to gender, religion, race, national origin, social status or political conviction. State bodies can act only on the basis of the Constitution, within its limits, and to the extent and in the manner defined by law. International treaties on human rights and other basic agreements that were ratified by the Slovak Republic, and promulgated in a manner determined by law, take precedence over the Slovak Republic’s own laws, provided that they secure greater constitutional rights and liberties.

The political system of the Slovak Republic is a parliamentary democracy (with prime ministership) with autonomous legislative, executive and judicial branches.

The National Council of the Slovak Republic is a unicameral parliament, and under the Constitution is the supreme body exercising legislative power in the Slovak Republic, it is the highest legislative authority of the state. The National Council has 150 members elected for 4-year terms in direct elections with secret ballots. At least 5% of the total vote is needed for a party to enter the Parliament. The system of elections is proportional representation – parties are allotted seats in Parliament in accordance with the percentage of votes they get in the parliamentary elections.

The government consists of ministers selected by the political parties which have formed a coalition (usually more than 75 members of parliament). The Government of the Slovak Republic is the supreme body for exercising executive power. It consists of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers and Ministers. The Government is formed on the basis of parliamentary elections. The Prime Minister is appointed and recalled by the President of the Slovak Republic. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the President appoints and recalls other members of the Government and grants commissions to carry out departmental duties. The Government is collectively responsible to the Parliament for the exercise of governmental powers, which may take a vote of no-confidence at any time.

The President of the Slovak Republic is the highest constitutional representative (Head-of-State) in the country and he/she is elected by direct elections. His function is, however, more formal, the real governmental power is in the hands of Prime Minister and partly in the hands of President of the Parliament (Chairman of the National Council). According to the constitutional law adopted on January 14, 1999 the President is elected to office by popular vote in a two-round election system. The same person can be elected President for a maximum of two consecutive 5-year terms.

The Chairman of the National Council of the Slovak Republic is elected or recalled by secret ballot with the consent of an absolute majority of all members of the Parliament. The Chairman is responsible exclusively to the National Council of the Slovak Republic.

The Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic is an independent judicial body charged with protecting constitutionality in the Slovak Republic. The Court consists of 10 judges appointed by the President for a period of 7 years out of 20 nominees proposed to him by the Parliament. The Court is headed by a President, who is appointed from among the judges of the Constitutional court by the President of the Slovak Republic.


Ivan Gašparovič – President of Slovakia

Ivan GašparovičAfter the Velvet revolution in the years of 1990-1992 he was the General Attorney of Czechoslovakia. In 1993 he got back to the University of Komensky in Bratislava and as a lawyer he was member of Scientific Council. He joined the party HZDS and was head of Parliament for several years. In 2002 he rejected the authority of Mečiar and left the party. He was elected president on 17th of April 2004 and then re-elected on 22nd of March 2009.


Robert Fico – Prime Minister

The Prime Minister since April 2012 is Robert Fico.


Pavol Paška – President of Parliament

The Chairman since April 2012 is Pavol Paška (Smer-SD).


Slovak Parliamentary Parties

  • Government parties: Smer-SD
  • Opposition: SDKÚ-DS, SaS, KDH, Most-Híd, OĽaNO

Explanation of party abbreviations

  • Smer-SD = Smer – sociálna demokracia = Direction – Social Democracy
  • SDKÚ-DS = Slovenská demokratická a kresťanská únia – demokratická strana = Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party
  • SaS = Sloboda a Solidarita = Freedom and Solidarity
  • KDH = Kresťansko-demokratické hnutie = Christian Democratic Movement
  • Most-Híd = Bridge (in Slovak and in Hungarian)
  • OĽaNO = Obyčajní ľudia a nezávislé osobnosti = Ordinary People and Independent Personalities

Results of the Parliamentary elections in 2012

The last Parliamentary elections in Slovakia were held in March 2012 and these were the results:

  • Smer – 44,41 %
  • KDH – 8,82 %
  • OĽaNO – 8,56 %
  • Most-Híd – 6,89 %
  • SDKÚ-DS – 6,09 %
  • SaS – 5,88 %


Slovak Government in 2010-2012


Iveta Radičová – Prime Minister

Prof. PhDr. Iveta Radičová, PhD. is a Slovak sociologist. She graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy of the Comenius University in Bratislava in 1979. After the death of her husband she had fully devoted herself to politics. In years 2005 and 2006 she was the head of the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family. In 2009 she was one of the candidates for the presidency.


Richard Sulík – President of Parliament

Ing. Richard Sulík is a Slovak economist and politician. He is the founder of the SaS political party. Until 1991 he lived in West Germany where he studied at the Munich Univesity. In 2003 he graduated from the Economic University in Bratislava. He worked as an advisor to the Minister of Finance in years 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. After the success in 2010 elections he was named the President of Parliament.


Slovak Parliamentary Parties

  • Government parties: SDKÚ-DS, SaS, KDH, Most-Híd
  • Opposition: Smer-SD, SNS

Explanation of party abbreviations

  • Smer-SD = Smer – sociálna demokracia = Direction – Social Democracy
  • SDKÚ-DS = Slovenská demokratická a kresťanská únia – demokratická strana = Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party
  • SaS = Sloboda a Solidarita = Freedom and Solidarity
  • KDH = Kresťansko-demokratické hnutie = Christian Democratic Movement
  • Most-Híd = Bridge (in Slovak and in Hungarian)
  • SNS = Slovenská Národná Strana = Slovak National Party

Results of the Parliamentary elections in 2010

The last Parliamentary elections in Slovakia were held in June 2010 and these were the results:

  • Smer – 34,8 %
  • SDKÚ – 15,4 %
  • SaS – 12,1 %
  • KDH – 8,5 %
  • Most-Híd – 8,1 %
  • SNS – 5,1 %


Slovak Government in 2006-2010


Robert Fico – Prime Minister

Robert Fico3 years before the end of communism he worked as a lawyer in the Law Institute of the Ministry of Justice and stayed there till 1995 (from 1992 as a deputy director). In 1994 he became the governmental agent representing the Slovak Republic before the European Court of Human Rights and the European Commission of Human Rights (till 2000). In 1999 he founded the political party SMER – Social Democracy and in 2006 won the parliamentary elections and became the Prime Minister.


Pavol Paška – President of Parliament

Pavol PaškaPaška graduated from the Faculty of Arts of the Comenius University in Bratislava in 1985. In 1999 he co-founded and became one of the vice-chairs of Smer–SD. Right after being chosen to lead the Slovak Parliament in 2006, Paška became also temporary Chair of the Conference of the Speakers of European Union Parliaments after The National Council of the Slovak Republic took over the Conference’s presidency on 3rd of July, 2006.


Slovak Parliamentary Parties

  • Government parties: Smer-SD, SNS, HZDS-ĽS
  • Opposition: SDKÚ-DS, SMK and KDH

Explanation of party abbreviations

  • Smer-SD = Smer – sociálna demokracia = Direction – Social Democracy
  • SNS = Slovenská Národná Strana = Slovak National Party
  • HZDS-ĽS = Hnutie za demokratické Slovensko – ľudová strana = Movement for Democratic Slovakia – People’s Party
  • SDKÚ-DS = Slovenská demokratická a kresťanská únia – demokratická strana = Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party
  • SMK = Strana maďarskej koalície = Hungarian Coalition Party
  • KDH = Kresťansko-demokratické hnutie = Christian Democratic Movement

Results of the Parliamentary elections in 2006

The last Parliamentary elections in Slovakia were held in June 2006 and these were the results:

  • Smer – 29,1 %
  • SDKÚ – 18,4 %
  • SNS – 11,7 %
  • SMK – 11,7 %
  • HZDS – 8,8 %
  • KDH – 8,3 %

2 Responses to Internal Politics

  1. Oppenberg October 12, 2011 at 12:07 am #

    Good Bye Slovakia,

    this night you kicked yourself out of Europe.

    Best Regards

    Burkhard Oppenberg

    [Reply]

    Slovak-Republic.org replies:

    Don’t think so… it was our right to say NO for EFSF.

    [Reply]

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