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Trenčín


General Information

Official Sign of TrenčínTrenčín is a city in western Slovakia situated close to the Czech border. It lies approximately 120 km from the capital – Bratislava. The population is more than 56 000. It is the center of Považie Region.

Trenčín is also the administrative centre of Trenčín Regional Government Unit. 9 districts belong there: Bánovce nad Bebravou, Ilava, Myjava, Nové Mesto nad Váhom, Partizánske, Považská Bystrica, Prievidza, Púchov, Trenčín.

Not only because of its advantageous location is Trenčín a very important commercial, economic, cultural and sport center of the region. Many institutions or companies have their seats or branches located here. City is known as the City of Fashion.


Map


History

Due to the geographical and strategic location in the dale of river Váh, Trenčín belongs to the most important towns in Slovakia since immemorial time. Area of Trenčín was inhabited for thousands of years. Several archeological findings proved that Trenčín was already settled in the Stone Age. The city of Trenčín belongs to the oldest cities in Slovakia (together with Bratislava and Nitra).

During the period of Great Moravia, Trenčín belonged to the Principality of Nitra. The bulk of the central Považie region became a part of Hungary, around the year 1018. Firstly, Trenčín was the seat of the district administrator, later it became the center of Trenčín Royal Estates County.

The city of Trenčín obtained various privileges and rights in Middle Ages. In 1324 the inhabitants were exempt from paying tolls. King Sigismund endowed Trenčín at a royal city with the same rights as took Buda in 1412. The town did not avoid disasters and often suffered from wars. In the middle of the 17th century Trenčín had to withstand the Turkish invasion. Their greatest attack against Trenčín reflected the population in 1663.

In the second mid of the 19th century, Trenčín became an important commercial and industrial center of central Považie, several companies and financial institutions were founded and a railway was built. Construction of Považská Railway started in 1875 after many delays, but was stopped again in June 1876 after taking Nové Mesto nad Váhom. The railway was extended to Istebník two years later and was officially called Trenčín.

Econommic importance of Považská Railways (connected to Košice-Bohumín line in Žilina) was increased by the fact that at the same time was built a railway Sereď-Galanta, so Trenčín had a direct connection with Budapest and Vienna. Particularly important was the direct access to the Silesian coal.

Construction of railways was a major impulse for industry development. Industry began to emerge since the late 19th century (textile factories, distilleries, rubber processing, timber and others). During the first CzechoSlovak Republic mainly clothing, food and engineering industry developed and later, after the World War II., exhibitory was formed.

In 1940 Trenčín had 13,647 inhabitants. German army occupied the city on 30th of August 1944, after the beginning of Slovak National Uprising. In the city road and railway bridge over the river Váh were destroyed during the World War II. After the liberation of the city 7 mass graves with 69 murdered trade unionists in Brezina were uncovered. Nowadays, there are two monuments remembering the 69 people.


Transport

Trenčín belongs to significant transport intersections with developed transportation infrastructure. The most important transportation connections include:

  • highway D1 (Bratislava – Žilina), distance from the capital is 124 km, an hour by car
  • road E50 – connection to Brno (Czech Republic)
  • railway Bratislava – Košice, part of the international PAN-European corridor Balt – Adria
  • airports – Trenčín – a local military airport, international airports in Bratislava (124 km), Vienna (170 km)


Sights

Trenčín Castle

Trenčín CastleTrenčín Castle (Trenčiansky hrad) is relatively large renovated castle, towering on a steep limestone cliff directly above the city of Trenčín. It is a dominant feature not only of Trenčín, but also of the entire Považie region. The castle is a national monument.

History of the castle cliff dates back to the Roman Empire, what is proved by the inscription on the castle cliff proclaiming the victory of Roman legion II. against Germans in the year 179.

Today’s castle was probably built on the hill-fort. The first proven building on the hill was the Great Moravian rotund from the 9th century and later there was a stone residential tower, which served to protect the Kingdom of Hungary and the western border. In the late 13th century the castle became a property of Palatine Matúš Csák, who became Mr. of Váh and Tatras.

Matúš Csák of Trenčín built a tower, still known as Matthew’s (Matúš), which is a dominant determinant of the whole building. Another owner of the castle, Sigismund of Luxemburg, built a new palace and a chapel in the 15th century. All these buildings have been restored and are now used for museum purposes.

The 15th century was the century of fortification reinforcement, caused by Hussite ventures, which directed to Slovakia. In the late 15th century, the castle together with the entire town belonged to Stephen Zápoľský, who began extensive alterations.

Trenčín Castle, together with the Spiš Castle and Devín Castle, belonged to the largest European castles in 1540-1560. At that time a star-defense artillery was built and modernized in accordance with historical patterns. The silhouette of the castle has changed – tall Gothic roofs were exchanged for horizontal Renaissance attics with swallow-tails, which were typical Italian elements of the 16th century. The castle was damaged during a fire in 1790. Nowadays, the castle is under a complex reconstruction. Restored objects are progressively used for museum purposes and for exposures.

A unique view offers from the Matthew’s tower. It offers an open view to the White Carpathian Mountains. Spaces of the Matthew’s tower document the housing of the nobility in the mid of the 11th century. Barbora’s palace interior and the cannon bastion have a modern renovated vault system.

Peace Square

Trenčín Peace SquareThe shape of Peace Square (Mierové námestie) has been changed many times during the history.

Ground plan of Trenčín was formed by the historic road, connecting the Moravian Gate through Považie, with the valley of the river Váh. In this way, between the castle rock and the river Váh, the settlement of Podhradská was founded, which created an irregular longitudinal square, already before the year 1111.

In the 15th century gates at its end (Upper and Lower Town Gate) with the urban fortification were built, which followed the fortification of the castle. This has created an enclosed area of the castle and the town. Peace Square was a center of cultural and political life for centuries. In 1652-1657, the Jesuits built a church on its southern edge and the Monastery of St Fancis of Xavier, today Piarist Church.

In the 18th century statue of St. John of Nepomuk and the Plague Pillar were placed in the square. At the beginning of the 19th century accrued the statue of St. Florian as a symbol of protection against the fire, but unfortunately, it was destroyed. Gradually, other buildings were built on the square – Town Hall, County House, Post Office, casino and hotel.

The square had several names for the years – Intra moenia, Teatrum, Rink, Hlinka, Stalin Square and the square received its current name in 1962. In 1987, after an extensive reconstruction and architectural research, the square was declared as an Urban Monument.

The Lower City Gate

Dolná brána – Mestská veža (The Lower City Gate) in TrenčínGothic tower The Lower City Gate (Dolná brána – Mestská veža) is with its six floors a very high monument. It was built in the 15th century on a square foundations. The tower was later updated in the Renaissance style during the first quater of the 17th century. There was also a mechaical clock in Renesaince style instaled at the top of the tower. In 1934 it was changed to an electric clock. Nowadays it is opened to the public only in the summertime.

Plague Pillars

Plague Pillar in TrenčínPillars of the Virgin Mary and Holy Trinity (Stĺpy Panny Márie a Najsvatejšej Trojice) are free-standing pillars with Christian themes. They are also called as Plague Pillars, or according to the consecration as Marian or Holy Trinity pillars. Trenčín Plague Pillar is placed on Peace Square – the largest square of Trenčín. The column was built by Count Mikuláš Illésházi in 1712 as a memorial of plague epidemic, which swept through the city in 1710.

Construction of these pillars was a way of demonstration of faith in Catholic countries, especially in the 17th and 18th century. These columns became one of the most visible features of Baroque architecture. Marian Pillars were built to honor of Virgin Mary, often in a sign of gratitude for the completion of plague or other relevant assistance.

The purpose of the Holy Trinity Pillars was usually a celebration of the church and faith. On the Plague Pillars there are, often, statues of other saints. Typical is St. Roch, who according to the legend, fell sick, when he was helping to infected people during the plague epidemic and recovered due to his strong belief. St. Sebastian, murder, who was shown on the pillars too, was originally the patron of archers. Among the other saints shown on pillars belongs St. Barbara, patroness of the dying, St. Francis of Xaver, who according to the legend, had a gift to heal and resurrect the dead, and St. Charles of Boromejo, known for his help to sick and dying.

The first of such pillar was to the north of Alps and was called Mariensaule. Mariensaule was built in Munich in 1638 as thanks for that the city survived the attack of the Swedish army and plague. Virgin Mary is floating on the top of the crescent as the Queen of Heaven. This column was an inspiration for other pillars built in Prague and Vienna and others. In countries of the former Habsburg monarchy, such as Czech, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary, were built these columns in almost every squares, usually located on the best spot.

Trenčín Synagogue

Synagogue of Trenčín (Synagóga v Trenčíne) belongs to the most beautiful and interesting works of its kind in Slovakia. This historic work with Byzantine elements is situated in the northern corner of the Square of Ľ. Štúr, on the place of the former wooden synagogue from the year 1781.

The synagogue was built in 1913 according to the project of Berlin architect Dr. Richard Scheibner, native of Trenčín. Building plans are deposited in the State Archives in Trenčín. The authors proposed the central in square ground plan bridging the huge dominant vault on tambour. Into this area are built terraced galleries – Ezra of ours.

Above each empora, as well as above the cap stone, are strips of barrel vault, which create a Byzantine scheme of Greek cross. To this central space is connected the three-nave hall with the main entrance, tucked under the empora and behind the cap stone is a rectangular extended room for office, which now serves as a vestry.

Trenčín Synagogue can be confidently regarded as the culmination of traditionalism, but in the modernist spirit. Post-Art Nouveau influenced some of the art elements and opening forms, which have nothing to do with the history. Grilles, railings, windows and doors are close to the Viennese Art-Nouveau and Modernism. This valuable historic building was built with modern technologies of reinforced concrete structures. Even modernist styled Oriental and Moorish decorative motifs can be seen there.

The synagogue was inaugurated and consecrated on 23rd of September 1913. Trenčín Jewish community had almost 2,000 members in the period of the first Czechoslovak Republic. Synagogue was used by Jewish until World War II. The synagogue was desecrated and damaged in 1941 by the members of Trenčín Nazi organization of Freiwillige Schutzstaffel and the Hlinka Guard.

The first reconstruction was in 1945-1948. In 1951, when the synagogue took over the ownership of state, it was used as a warehouse for clothing and for religious purposes served only the vestry room. In this period was a serious distortion of the object.

This certainly interesting Art Nouveau building excited the interest of professionals and general public, so in 1974-1984 acceded to the next extensive reconstruction. The aim of this reconstruction was a complete revitalization that would ensure the appropriate use and maintaining the functionality of the former synagogue building.

The synagogue was finally restored as an exhibition hall, the acoustic properties of the interior provide a suitable environment even for the concert events. In 1990 was restored a small chapel at the rear of the house.

Brezina Forest Park

Brezina Forest Park (Lesopark Brezina) is a park in the town of Trenčín. It is located on the massif of Brezina, which highest point is Goat Hill (381 m a.s.l.). Massif of Brezina is the westernmost tip of Strážovské Hill. It is a terrain obstacle that can not be removed, and thus it has a significant impact on overall urban solution of Trenčín and in particulat on transport infrastructure.

The park is morphologically a remnant of plateau, which is a remnant of the bottom of Tertiary marine. The longest valley of the forest park lies above the Kukučínova Street. Wonderful examples of erosion morphology are deep potholes in Dolinky and Teheľňa. Potholes are digging into the friable stone and to clay loess.

Difficult accessible and extreme terrain of these areas secured intact environment. Terrain dominant of the forest park is the cliff of Trenčín Castle and a rock system Sokolice, towering above the northwest part of Trenčín. Both of these are of limestone formations, which are more durable than their surroundings and therefore they are towering put of field.

According to the historical paintings, massif of Brezina has been on its top deforested to unable the shirk access to the castle from the west. In the early 20th century a large area was planted monoculture of pine, especially black pine and Scots pine. Conifers dominate almost the whole park. Over the years pines are decreasing and in their places are printing broadleaf. Pine still dominates on loose and friable terrains, particularly on rocks of Sokolica. A common wood is maple, beech, locust and others.

Despite the name Brezina (Field of birch trees), birch trees grow hardly. Occasionally, they can be beheld in the rear eastern part of the park. As a satisfaction to the name Forest Park Brezina were planted some birch trees in the Cherry orchard area.

Park is suitable for walking, hiking, running and also for mountain biking. Winter time allows sledding and cross country skiing. In the past was created known Oxygen track. It is a circuit created by connecting various sections of forest roads with the length of 5 km. This track is used for running or several physical exercises. Along the route were placed at regular intervals several training grounds. The track is still used.

Dubnická Grotto with Tower

Dubnická grotto with viewing tower (Dubnická grotta s vežou) is a tourist attraction in the near of Trenčín for which certainly pays off to travel. It is a unique architectural gem located in the area of Park of J. B. Magina near Dubnický Castle. The grotto, which is popularly called Babylon, is built of tuff and quarry stone and should remain the mysterious ruins. It consists of an artificial cave – grotto and wooden viewing tower with neo-Gothic windows.

The tower was destroyed by a fire in the 40s, after which the entire building began to deteriorate. The wooden tower has disappeared from human memories and Babylon became a heap of stones. Its original appearance is preserved in the painting of artist Jaroslav Baďura. Other knowledge about the Babylon brought findings of photographs from the years 1937-1943.

According to them it was possible to more precisely determine the detailed decoration or the location of the coat of arms of Gaspar Illésházi and his wife Helena Thurzová. During the restoration works and tunnel uncovering in 2009-2010 were found fragments of statues and cornices.

Many superstitions about secret passageways to the castle are linked to Babylon. A beautiful view on the nature of Považie and Vršatské hills is form the viewing room (the highest part of the tower). Grotto with the viewing tower and along with other cultural monuments is located in Dubnica nad Váhom.


Restaurants

Cafe-Restaurant Rotunda

  • Address: Sadová 6686
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 11 44

Chinese Restaurant Da Si Jiang

  • Address: Hasičská 5
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 07 81

Le Patriot Restaurant

  • Address: Námestie sv. Anny 13
  • Tel: 00421/32/649 10 34

Libresso Gansel

  • Address: Mierové námestie 40
  • Tel: 00421/32/743 48 17

Maron Restaurant

  • Address: Ulica L. Svobodu, OZC Južanka
  • Tel: 00421/32/649 10 53

Artur Restaurant

  • Address: Palackého 23
  • Tel: 00421/32/748 10 26

White Swan Restaurant

  • Address: I. Olbrachta 3
  • Tel: 00421/32/652 96 67

Cinema Movies Club Restaurant

  • Address: Palackého 33
  • Tel: 00421/903 770 948

Emdo Centro Restaurant

  • Address: Nám. sv. Anny 22
  • Tel: 00421/32/652 12 84

Evergreen Restaurant

  • Address: Kubranská 8
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 16 71

Na Kanenci Restaurant

  • Address: Hlavná 21
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 00 83

Perla Restaurant

  • Address: Legionárska 49
  • Tel: 00421/32/652 18 05

Pod hradnou skalou Restaurant

  • Address: Matúšova 75
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 60 92

Trenčan Restaurant

  • Address: Ul. 1. mája 1
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 36 66

U Furku Restaurant

  • Address: M.R.Štefánika 118
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 22 68

U Šánera Restaurant

  • Address: J. Braneckého 14
  • Tel: 00421/903 779 604

U Sv. Urbana Restaurant

  • Address: Nám. sv. Anny 34
  • Tel: 00421/32/640 09 88

Flor de amor Restaurant

  • Address: Považská ul. 1706
  • Tel: 00421/32/748 49 00

Ypsilonka – Vegetarian Restaurant

  • Address: Legionárska 17
  • Tel: 00421/32/658 07 31


Theatre

Dom Armády – ODA Trenčín (House od Army – ODA Trenčín)

  • Address: Hviezdoslavova 16
  • Tel: 00421/960 333 814


Museums

Trenčianske múzeum (Trenčín Museum)

  • Address: Mierové námestie 46
  • Tel: 00421/32/ 743 44 31

Trenčiansky hrad (Trenčín Castle)

  • Address: Trenčiansky hrad
  • Tel: 00421/32/743 56 57

Antic Museum of Vojtech Zamarovsky

  • Address: Mierové námestie 22
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 22 45


Galerries

Gallery of M. A. Bazovský

  • Address: Palackého 27
  • Tel: 00421/32/743 68 58

City gallery on Mierové Square no. 16

  • Address: Mierové námestie 16
  • Tel: 00421/32/774 22 45

City gallery on Mierové Square no. 22

  • Address: Mierové námestie 22
  • Tel: 00421/32/774 22 45

Exhibition Ground EXPO Center

  • Address: Pod Sokolice 43
  • Tel: 00421/32/743 56 00


Cinemas

Atrkino Metro

  • Address: Mierové nám. 4
  • Tel: 00421/32/743 44 15

Cinemax Trenčín

  • Address: M.R. Štefánika 426
  • Tel: 00421/32/741 92 40


Clubs

Jamm Club

  • Address: Štúrovo nám. 18
  • Tel: 00421/944 113 160

Klub Lúč

  • Address: Ulica K. Pribinu 2
  • Tel: 00421/903 027 910

Piano Club

  • Address: Pod sokolice 12 – 16
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 50

Steps Pub

  • Addres: Sládkovičova 6
  • Tel: 00421/32/744 62 52

Music Festival Pohoda

It is the most visited festival in Slovakia and has been organized in Trenčín since 1997. It takes place at the Airport of Trenčín. Thousands of people from many generations come here to see and listen to more world known singers or groups. 3 days festival with many stages, attractions such as bungee jumping, people from whole Europe – learn more about Pohoda festival!


Shopping

ZOC MAX Trenčín
Generála M. R. Štefánika 426/90
91101 Trenčín
Tel.: +421/032/741 93 30


Tourist Information

  • Address: Sládkovičova 1
  • Tel: 00421/32/16 186

4 Responses to Trenčín

  1. Bob Cerny September 4, 2009 at 3:39 am #

    Could you please tell me how to search obituaries, necrology files, etc. in Slovakia.

    Thank you in advance

    [Reply]

    Slovak-Republic.org replies:

    We are not aware of any central directory of necrology files, but if you know the location (which I expect is Trenčín), try to contact the local library: http://www.vkmr.sk/ or the Slovak National Library: http://www.snk.sk/

    [Reply]

  2. susan May 7, 2010 at 8:43 pm #

    Hi, im doing some research and i believe there is/was an army base in the city. Could you give me the name and maybe the address of the base? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thankyou

    [Reply]

    Slovak-Republic.org replies:

    Hi Susan, I guess you mean a house called Dom Armády (House of Army) on Hviezdoslavova street 16.
    Tel.: 00421 960 333 814
    Website: http://www.domarmady.sk/

    [Reply]

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